International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol





Energy, water or demand savings cannot be directly measured, because savings represent the absence of energy/water consumption or demand. Instead, savings are determined by comparing measured consumption or demand before and after implementation of a program, making suitable adjustments for changes in conditions.


The comparison of before and after energy consumption or demand should be made on a consistent basis, using the following general M&V equation:

Savings = (Baseline Period Energy – Reporting Period Energy) ± Adjustments

Good practice requires that M&V is well integrated into the process of identifying, developing, procuring, installing and operating energy conservation measures. This requires certain activities to occur at key points in this process and describes other important activities that must be included as part of good M&V practice.



Since 1997, Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) develops, maintains, improves and publishes the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP).
IPMVP presents common principles and terms that are widely accepted as basic to any good M&V process. It does not define the M&V activities for all applications. Each project must be individually designed to suit the needs of all readers of energy or water savings reports. This individual design is recorded in the project’s M&V Plan and savings are reported as defined therein.


Organisations can appeal to a Certified Measurement and Verification Professional to guide and advise them on setting up a good M&V strategy, plan and/or report. The CMVP program was established in order to recognize the most qualified professionals and to raise the overall professional standards within the measurement and verification (M&V) field.

The right to use the CMVP title is granted to those who demonstrate proficiency in the M&V field by passing a four hour written exam and meeting the required academic and professional qualifications. Certification is to be renewed every 3 years.

The Factor4 team has 2 CMVP’s. Please contact us if you have any questions or would like us to work with you on a sound M&V strategy.

Relevant services

Performance contracting

A good “building performance contract” guarantees a certain level of energy cost reduction, comfort satisfaction and maintenance. We help public authorities and building managers set up EPC and ESCO projects.
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We are accredited and licensed to perform energy audits, report on CO2 footprints and offset CO2 emissions.
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We organise workshops and trainings for organisations or public authorities that want to start working with ESCOs, Energy Performance Contracting or re-commissioning.
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Measuring performance

We measure building performance using different tools, from sensors over audits to comfort surveys.
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Our clients

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